What Fossils Reveal about Today’s Climate Change

September 14, 2019 posted by

This episode is brought to you through a collaboration with the Smithsonian’s National Museum of Natural History in Washington DC, and the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois. [Emily VO] Hey, so my time is almost up here in the US capital. But, before I left, I had a chance to sneak in and see part of the construction of the Natural History Museum’s new “Deep Time Hall”, which is reopening in 2019 after being completely overhauled and rebuilt over the last five years. When it’s done, visitors will be able to learn about the history of our planet from the formation of the earth, to present-day, with a look to the future. To help us understand this concept of “deep time”, let’s use the Washington Monument as a scale bar. Here’s the formation of our planet, down here at the base – 4.5 billion years ago. The earliest evidence of life took the form of single-celled organisms around a billion years later. Then, the first multi-cellular life shows up. Very early animal groups join the party during the Cambrian Explosion around here. Oh and here’s our friend Dimetrodon, who by the way is not a dinosaur. But, around 232 million years ago we get our earliest dinosaurs, and they largely get wiped out by an asteroid here. The first known flowering plant is pretty late to the party, but honestly so are we. The earliest humans, Homo habilis, evolved a little over two million years ago. And, Homo sapiens didn’t make it on the map until just around 300,000 years ago, right up here. To get another perspective on this concept of “deep time”, I went to chat with Dr. Kirk Johnson. He’s the Sant Director of the Natural History Museum, and a paleobotanist. He studies fossil plants, and has been working on the Deep Time Hall renovation project for years. Emily: So, how do you deal with that interplay between technology accelerating at an unprecedented rate, but you’re focusing on a Deep Time Hall? Kirk: We live in a world where it’s not just changing, but the rate of change is changing, which means that this Hall has to be future-proof to some degree. And, what we’re doing is actually challenging our visitors to see themselves in their part on the story of our planet, which is what other halls don’t do, and also see themselves as agents for a positive future of the planet. Emily: How do you do that? I mean you as a paleontologist – I mean you’re constantly looking at the fossil record, your work is in the fossil record, your research is looking at things that when extinct or died, you know, tens of millions of years ago. How do you take your background as a paleontologist and interject that into this idea of looking to the future to make decisions that are going to be better off for our planet? Kirk: Well, I mean, paleontology is all about discovery. You’re looking for things and you find things, and that’s what’s so cool about it. And, for me, it’s really helpful to know the history the planet, because it helps me understand what’s going on now. Take climate change for instance, we know a ton about climate change by looking at what’s happened in the past. And, for almost all the stuff we’re presenting in the exhibit, we’re using specimens that we’ve had for 200 years, but concepts we’ve had for as little as 10 years. So the science that’s going through this hall is the latest science, and it’s got this “future-cast”, which is quite amazing. [Emily VO] On the topic of both the discoveries in paleontology, as well as looking to the fossil record to better understand current climate change events, we went to interview the Curator of Fossil Plants, Dr. Scott Wing. Like Kirk, he’s a paleobotanist, but his research is focused on something called the “Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum”, or the PETM for short. Simply put, the PETM was a massively significant global warming event that happened around 56 million years ago, or about here on the Washington Monument. During the PETM, something triggered a huge release of carbon into the atmosphere that lasted for a few thousand years, and it significantly warmed the planet. The global temperature increased by five to eight degrees Celsius or around nine to fourteen degrees Fahrenheit. This led to a variety of ecological and environmental changes. There was ocean acidification and deep sea extinctions. On land, many vertebrates began to shrink in size, as the CO2 in the atmosphere caused plants to become less nutritious. And, there were other floral and faunal changes occurring, as sea levels rose and the planet became warm and wet. The PETM lasted for around 180 thousand years. And, although the impact of the PETM carbon release happened over a period of time that’s a hundred times longer than the human caused carbon release that’s happening today, it’s still the best proxy for helping us understand the long-term effects of today’s human-caused climate change on our planet. But, there’s still a lot of work to be done. And, as you’ll hear from Scott, it can take years to scratch the surface. Emily: How is this event even discovered? Scott: Well, it was discovered initially in drill cores from the Southern Ocean from off of Antarctica. Antarctica is where the coldest densest water in the ocean forms today, and that really has a huge influence on the circulation of water in the global ocean. So the question was, how long has that been true, has that been true for millions of years, what about back when it was generally a lot warmer than it is today? So, you have to imagine a big drilling ship, a bunch of scientists on board, [and] labs – they’re bringing up cores. So, they were there to get a sort of long-term record of what happened over the last 70 million years. And, what they had noticed was there’s an extinction event that they didn’t really expect to see. So, people published papers on these cores from Antarctica. The next year a couple of other scientists working in Wyoming, where I had been working for a long time, said, “Oh, we see, what we think is the same event, in rocks deposited on land in Wyoming”. I thought, well, if there’s a warming event, I work on fossil plants – plants are really sensitive to climate change – I should go find plant fossils in the period of time when there was that sudden warming, because that’s gonna be really interesting. Emily: So how did you find these fossils? Did you just get out of your truck and walk 20 feet in the other direction, and boom there they were? Scott: No, no. Yeah, that would have been really nice. I knew sort of about what level I was needing to look at, but I didn’t know exactly where, and I didn’t know where the plant fossils would be, because I hadn’t looked for them exactly in that zone. This warm period is about a hundred thousand years long. A hundred thousand years sounds like a lot, but it’s a hundred thousand years in the middle of a pile of rocks, in that part of Wyoming that represents about ten million years. You know? Emily: You’re looking for a tiny sliver. Scott: It’s the needle in a haystack. Emily: The needle in the haystack, a PETM fossil deposited in the Big Horn Basin in Wyoming. Scott: Right. Emily: That’s a less relatable analogy. Not that (Scott: Just a little bit, yeah.) that people are finding needles in haystacks, right? Scott: Yeah, so I set out looking for them. That was 1993. I went out every summer for the next 10 years. Emily: It took you 10 years?! Scott: Yeah, well 10 years before I found an area where it looked like there were going to be plant fossils, and then it another 2 years to find really good ones. I mean, there were other things too. I wasn’t just wandering around like a crazy guy lost in the desert. [Saying] like , “Where my fossils? They must be here someplace!”. Emily: So, what was this moment of discovery like? Scott: It was very storybook. I was out with a guy who just graduated from college, and he had never been in the field before. And so, we walked for a couple of hours up into these hills where I knew the rocks would be the right age, in general. I said, “Oh, you know, I just need to check that out”, because I saw something that looked like maybe [the right fossils]. I dug into the hillside with a shovel, and out pops a little plant fossil. It kind of looked like this and I knew immediately I had never seen anything remotely, like it. I get down and I’m digging with the shovel on my knees, trying to see what else is in there. Out pops another leaf! I just started to laugh, because this is absurd, because it was exactly what you’d expect! So I started laughing, and then I started to cry because I was really happy! And then I remembered that I wasn’t by myself. Emily: [laughs] Scott: I had kind of forgotten that I had somebody with me, because it was very exciting! In science, I had not had many “Eureka” moments, you know that sort of, “Oh, that’s it!”. That doesn’t really happen very often because it’s usually more incremental. So, you usually sort of slowly realize something. But no, no, it was like 4:04 p.m. on July 3rd, 2005. Emily: [Sarcastically] It’s not like you committed that date to memory? Scott: Yeah. No, I did. Yeah, that’s actually it. Both: [laugh] Emily: So what did you do with that information? I mean, because now the search is over and now the work begins. Scott: Right, exactly! Well, we made a big collection. That took two years – two summers of work, because that’s what it takes. Emily: Rocks are heavy. Scott: Rocks are heavy, they’re hard, they’re fragile. So, [then] I spent basically another 10 years looking for more places. Emily: Why is this a significant climatic event in our Earth’s history? Scott: It is the closest thing we have in the geological past to what we’re doing right now. Along with the warming, we have really strong evidence for a huge release of carbon into the atmosphere. We think that the the carbon release may have been triggered by a volcanic activity. It’s quite possible that that triggered the release of other reservoirs of carbon. And, then you change the climate, and you may start to cause the bacteria in soils to get very happy because it’s warmer, and they eat more of the organic matter in soils, and that puts even more CO2 in the atmosphere. So basically, it’s a trainwreck and it just goes “pew”, and that’s why it warms so quickly. Today, carbon release is a little bit simpler. It’s mostly caused by burning fossil fuels. 15 percent of it’s caused by deforestation, land-use, activities of humans. Except, what’s happening now is happening even faster. Emily: How does it resolve itself? Does it resolve itself? Scott: After about a hundred and fifty thousand years of being really warm, it starts to cool off again. A combination of weathering and productivity are pulling the CO2 out of the atmosphere. Emily: So at one point you mentioned that it’s important for us to think in a geologic timescale, rather than thinking in a human time scale, especially as there are policies and and other decisions being made today, that are contributing to the overall warming of our planet. What is that? What does it mean to think about thinking a geologic time scale versus a human time scale? Scott: Yeah, I think it just means to be aware. We can’t just think about next year, or ten years from now, or a hundred years from now. Because, the things that we’re doing today are going to have an impact in a hundred, or a thousand, or 10,000 years. It’s really like “Spider-Man”. Emily: Really? Scott: Yeah, yeah, you know well… Both: “With great power comes great responsibility.” Emily: It’s true. Scott: Yeah, and there’s the time dimension to that responsibility. Emily: So what does this mean for Natural History Museum’s looking to the future? Kirk: I mean, if you think about it, these museums all were built during the time of big urbanization between 1880 and 1920. So at the end of 19th century, was the formation of the big temple-like buildings in urban areas. And, people are moving into the city, away from the countryside. They were learning that there was stuff to be preserved. Like, herds of bison were disappearing, and people naming National Parks. And then the 20th century happened! The 20th century went by fast, but it had the World Wars, it had the Depression, it had the Cold War, it had Sputnik, and it had the rise of science centers. And all that time, the natural museums got lower and slower, and lower and slower, and lowered. So by the early 80s, they looked like 19th century institutions, but they weren’t because they were these places where families work to learn about the natural world and people kept going. So, they really are 19th century organizations that are dialing forward into the 21st century. And our message is the same, but changed. Right? The same because we’re really worried about the natural world and humans’ impact on it. That was our original mission. It’s our mission now. And, we’re trying to prepare people to realize what the impact of humanity on the evolution on their planet is. And, this is how we do it: by telling the story of our planet, and then making them realize that they’re part of that story. Emily: I’m convinced. Kirk: Okay, good, done. Emily: Yeah, you’ve got my money, but you’re a free institution. Kirk: Oh, that’s right, but we’ll still take your money. Emily: [laughing] Okay? Emily: It still has brains on it.


92 Replies to “What Fossils Reveal about Today’s Climate Change”

  1. Danny Boel says:

    yay, new videoo 💛👍

  2. Fennecfoxfanatic says:

    New brain scoop video I repeat NEW BRAIN SCOOP VIDEO✨🎉🎉

  3. santos belmarez says:

    This is so depressing, humans are too lazy and stubborn to change.

  4. 1Slamalama1 says:

    That Earth has always gone through temperature cycles and that "global warming" is a joke.

  5. Stingetan says:

    Shouts out to whoever does the audio for compressing the voice-over nicely. I nearly deafened myself opening this video with headphones on because most YouTube channels have horribly quiet audio.

  6. battered walrus says:

    Oh come on guys, you missed the Avalon explosion (560-550million years ago, i forget which one) , which pre-dates the cambrian explosion 😉

  7. Josh Wright says:

    This Smithsonian collaboration series has been so great. Emily's skills as an interviewer really shine in these types of videos.

  8. New Message says:

    So, he's been working on the Deep Time exhibit for a RELATIVELY long time.

  9. Arty Bateman says:

    The video editing and animations are really good in this video, and you're very articulate!

  10. Aaron Williams says:

    Why would the T-Rex be biting the bony part of the downed Triceratops? I'd think that dino would want to eat some flesh, not bone…

  11. JAlden Yakobis says:

    Say what you will about the Deep Time Scale of the Washington Monument; Dr. Scott drops 24 years of discovery on us in 9~ minutes.

  12. TheMarked says:

    Great information!

  13. CrankyPants says:

    I see illustrations like that to show the planet's timeline and, while I understand the giant history of our planet–on paper–it's hard to wrap my head around the scale of it. I don't have a very good imagination as it is, so when I hear things like the dinosaurs were around for millions of years, or the planet is billions of years old, or humans have been around for less than a hair's width on the timeline, it's very hard for me to imagine it all. I believe the words, I just find it impossible to wrap my little head around it…if that makes sense?

  14. Pop The Bubble says:

    I wonder what percentage of people who think they know the whole truth about climate change have actually bothered to look into the subject for themselves and not just reiterate the talking points of mainstream media outlets?

  15. Aaron Williams says:

    Nbd, just a hundred and fifty thousand years, that's a blink of the eye. lol

  16. ResortDog says:

    Our friend" How about great great great great great great…great Grandmother? Close; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Therapsid

  17. Furat Ceylan says:

    i think you should add the scale of some of the museums to the video – like i saw in another one, people should be reminded of how HUUUUGE the natural museums are, because of their immense job of acting as a memory and representation of what we know about the history of our little speck of dust suspended in a sunbeam…
    and that lil speck is going to get a tad warmer and that is already in progress of killing many more species that should normally die out …

    well i guess some of us will only pay attention when parts of a continent start to submerge … oh wait, isn´t that already happening…

    on a happier note, i really enjoy the chemistry you seem to have with each and every museum worker you encounter, they are super forthcoming and talk about their job and what makes it so special and passionate for them!

  18. Batra Chian says:

    Oh hey, already got a couple science denialist morons in the comments!

  19. Jeff Liggett says:

    In the future, climate change themed Museum exhibits will be looked at the way we look at biblical themed Museum exhibits.
    I look forward to being called a heretic in the comments.

  20. Mr. B in the studio says:

    No matter how many times I hear it, "it still has brains on it" makes me giggle every time

  21. Michelle Pearson says:

    I was wondering where you went. This is video is great all around! I wish I could watch content like this everyday!

  22. Nathan Williams says:

    Spiderman reference was excellent. Always loved that quote about power

  23. Cyn X says:

    …still has brains on it… 🙂

  24. Ray Joshoa Dulay says:

    A new episode! Aaaaaah! Life is complete again!

  25. Mason reed says:

    Omg I was born at 4:00 on July 3rd!!!!

  26. Timothy Milligan says:

    This was really great, I think my favorite of the NMNH collabs so far!

    However, you can tell it was made by people-not-from-DC because the Monument lacked its Civil-War-color-change-stripe and its shining aluminum cap

  27. wilson mccoy says:

    Quick question. At 3:50 wouldn't more C02 make the plants bigger/better? Why did that make animals evolve to be smaller?

  28. zeabeth says:

    As much as i love America, the different Smithsonian campuses were by far my favorite part of dc. I got emotional a couple times thinking about just how much existence there was. There's soo much everything that happened! That fossil lived a life surrounded by others doing their thing, millions of years ago.

    The american Indian museum hit me the hardest. Very sadface

  29. Wayne Keyser says:

    Reminds me – when I was a kid I loved the issues of National Geographic with paintings of wonderful factories belching smoke into the air, building tanks and cars, and much more – we not only didn't consider the consequences, it was "every boy's dream"

  30. Ascetic says:

    Emily, I live near D.C. Why didn't you call me so we could meet up at the museum? Sheesh. Haha. Thanks for the video!

  31. Ryan Ang says:

    C O N T E N T

  32. rosie2112 says:

    How do you not giggle yourself silly being around such amazing fossils and artifacts? I still scream when I find a fossilized shell at the beach.

  33. charmaine hansen says:

    The exhibit looks so cool! It's mind blowing how much work went into it. Also I'm going to miss new episodes of brain scoop! But quick question what's been your fav episode of this season?

  34. BFjordsman says:

    Who benefits the most from warming? Greenland, Canada, Russia , Norway and America

  35. Gérard says:

    Wasn't the asteroid 65 milions years ago?

  36. Melissa Duckett says:

    Amazing research here! So interesting!

  37. Mivichi says:

    This made me geek out. Also, I think it was very well produced, and Emily did great with the interviews.

  38. Michael Gearhart says:

    AHHHHH!!! Brain Scoop! Brain Scoop! Brain Scoop!!! It has been so LONG!!! I have MISSED YOU!!! Emily, STOP doing totally awesome things we wished… we could… dooo… Okay, keep doing totally awesome stuff we wished we could do but SHOW US WHAT YOU ARE DOING… More often and stuff…

  39. All The Artsy says:

    This is why there may be no other intelligent life forms (that we know of). Intelligence (and progress that comes along with it) destroys life before it can ever progress to be space-faring. We will not destroy this planet. This planet will destroy us as the result of our shortsightedness, selfishness and greed.

  40. previouslyachimp says:

    You're a wonderful communicator Emily, your relaxed yet enthusiastic interest really brings out the best in interviewees. You're doing great work. Thank you 🙂

  41. culwin says:

    I remember the Cambrian Expansion. So many noobs back then.

  42. Mu51kM4n says:

    so…. is evolution exponential? I'd like to see a video explaining that… if it's a thing.

  43. Kim Jones says:

    The train wreck described by Dr. Wing might also be described by adapting the "domino effect" analogy – imagining each human choice or action or behavior as not just the first in a straight line of dominoes but only one in a surrounding field of them, some of which are already falling in a given direction, and that they also get exponentially larger, so that each one knocks over not just one or two others at a time but dozens.
    Dr. Wing also explains that the importance of understanding climate evolution (which is kind of the right term) on geologic time scales is that we can't just think in the time spans in which recordable history is measured. The problem is that we never experience anything longer than one human lifetime, and even that is much longer than we can usefully remember; and yet somehow the visual analogy chosen for deep time earlier in the video is the Washington Monument – another long, visually unbroken & scaleless measuring stick … ?
    If we want humans to understand measures beyond human experience, they need to be at least made translatable to human experience – generations? Or lifetimes?

  44. fasfan says:

    So basically… homo sapiens appear about the same place as "Laus Deo" on the capstone? I think that's fitting.

  45. Willem van de Beek says:

    Love the timescale compared to the Washington Monument! 🙂 Merry Christmas and happy 2019, people of the Brain Scoop!

  46. Jonny says:

    I'd love to visit the new Deep Time Hall, fascinating stuff, but I live in the UK so to do so I'd have to take one tonne of carbon deposited underground over many millions of years and throw it into the atmosphere in a single afternoon.

  47. reicirith says:

    I can't imagine looking for something for 10 years, and still continue to look. The dedication of scientists are amazing.

    Also, it's really interesting what Dr. Johnson says about natural history museums. I've always loved going to natural history museums, but there was also a weird sense that everything was from back in the 60's; especially as I got older and had more schooling in biology. He's right that the message is right, but some of the exhibit text might need updating (some discoveries and animal classification labels, seem outdated both scientifically and socially – for example, we don't really call aboriginals "indians" anymore.).

  48. LoloTheModel says:

    Please do more dissections! They’re the best!

  49. Youcant Stopme! says:

    Why not just remove the human element? With less of us our planet and the other species will be better off.

  50. Factoid says:

    I might be a bit late to the comments, but would one of you lovely people tell me what creature’s skeleton is shown at 1:58? At first I thought it was some rhinoceros relative based on the general headshape and protrusions, but then I noticed the saberteeth. So please, if anyone could tell me what that is it would be fantastic!

  51. CanobeansPL says:

    That was some of the nicest thirteen minutes I've ever spent! And Dr Wing is really heartwarming and inspiring :).

  52. Echo says:

    What about all the detritus and stuff that hasn't decomposed in the Arctic permafrost. If that melts, all that organic material can be eaten by the bacteria and then that initial spike maybe?

  53. rowan4rouge says:

    Wow Dr. Wing's story reminds me of the crazy fossil stories on your podcast! I know you've got a lot of things in the works but I hope the podcast will come back. Btw love this episode!

  54. SouthEastern Kaiju says:

    Great to hear emotional moments by paleontologist @ significant finds.. Paul Sereno comes to mind too.

  55. alexvanhalen5150 says:

    Great work, amazing video!! Continue like that!!

  56. Carina Stein says:

    What a fantastic episode! Good job, Emily, and everyone else involved in the making.

  57. Rae Bae says:

    It's so endearing to see people get excited about what they do for a living. Mr Wing describing finding plant fossils gave me a smile on my face. I hope to have that feeling about my career one day.

  58. Nillie says:

    When dealing with geological timescales, 100 000 years can literally be just one percent of the “search space”.

  59. Ashmeed Mohammed says:

    there should be a documentary or exposition series about museums, in general. spend a 5 to 15 mins about different museums and what they are about, and the cool stuff that each is good for.

  60. jen jen says:

    I love this series

  61. Jim Ferdinando says:

    Okay but WHAT THE HECK IS THAT at 1:59?!

  62. CMDR Qrusha says:

    I bet 99% of this blokes field time actually consists of tapping on rocks and saying "bollocks".

  63. Mark Lee says:

    CO2 release FOLLOWS warming by several hundred years. The warming happened first, then the carbon release. Humans aren't changing the climate.

  64. Quentin Funderburg says:

    You should go to the Indiana Dunes! You could talk about its amazing biodiversity, Henry Cowles and ecology, the Save the Dunes Initiative, and its fight to become a official national park today!

  65. Turtle Skater says:

    Climate change makes me sad

  66. EndeavorWebs says:

    Oh… ok…. so…. last time we had a massive extinction with a temperatura rise similar to what is happening today, the temperature went up to 5 to 8 degrees Celsius… and most living things died out and the hot burning period lasted for at least 100 thousand years?!… right… so… some scientists also said that if the temperature goes over 4 degrees Celsius humans probably would go extinct… and it seems that Global temperature is heading towards a higher level than 4 degrees Celsius in less then 100 years…
    Does that means we maybe extinct in less than 100 years? Nooo… of course not… it can't be… humans will be always here. We have high technology and museums with great knowledge that teach us what to do.

  67. Raimond Galicia says:

    This was a fantastic video!

  68. Sam Kimpton says:

    I wonder what fossils from today will tell scientists 100,000 years from now (assuming we're still around). Will they find microplastics embedded in fossils? Will they be able to see evidence of when we "hopefully" reached a turning point in the way we treat the environment?

  69. Dan Black says:

    11:02 – While listening to this video, I was going through my old Spider-Man comics to sell them. Kind of funny to hear you two bring up Spider-Man while I'm doing that. (The issues I was cataloging at that moment were some story arch about Peter's parents, so I wouldn't be surprised if that line was brought up again in those issues. I don't remember how much they dealt with Uncle Ben, though.)

  70. samvp1 says:

    Hail the metric system!

  71. Julian Manongdo says:

    Oh wow I finally finished 204 episodes lmao. I thought youtube was just glitching when I was clicking next and nothing was happening. Suffice it to say, subscribed and clicked the notification bell!!

  72. TobiasK says:

    Right after the mention of PETM the pseudo science takes over.

  73. Billy C says:


  74. Andres says:

    4:02 "The CO2 made plants less nutritious "…so yeah disregard photosynthesis that is fueled by CO2.
    If you said, the atmospheric pollution of an asteroid impact killed most plant sure, sulfur from volcanic activity but NOT CO2.
    Sorry, but Climate Change has become a religion.
    What it's funny, the propaganda of climate change is doubling down but everyone ignored the botched study on ocean temps that puts BIG HOLES in Human Climate change.
    Basically take an advanced geology course then learn evolutionary biology and suddenly you start seeing holes everywhere.
    The hypothesis that CO2 caused a warming while you have geological instability it's laughable.
    Earth goes on cycles, continents move, oceans dry out and others form. Yet one study, one study when drilling in Antarctica gets used to prove global warming, really?
    Then when Nobel price chemists and physicists ask questions comes the liberal backlash of the "religion of climate change".
    Climate will change and you can not do much about it.

  75. Sheryl Hosler says:

    I LOVE what the director had to say about the mission of natural history museums. Very astute, and incredibly important!

  76. Rodney Wroten says:

    if you could check out Alec Steele he is a very young man that in my opinion could pass for your twin. right down to the additude ,- smile. and even the glasses. you will be amazed I think. love your videos

  77. Simply Adopt says:

    Humans not understand. 👎

  78. Madilyn says:

    Please do another ask emily. Also can talk about the work on the native American Hall.. Also also can you tell us more about maximo.

  79. Rush Yahr says:

    she has the most adorable smile

  80. Jayce O'Brien says:

    Yepp. Gotta ask her out.

  81. James Hero says:

    I hope contents get a little bit more often… It takes months in between for a video to be up. I have to check in everyday and its kindda sad waiting for more… =(

  82. Rebecca Wolff says:

    Can you do a video about cervical vertebrate?

  83. serrina tc says:

    Emily where have you gone? Are you taking a break. I have been eagerly awaiting Your next video. My fiancé and I are going to many American museums. For our honeymoon. We have based our trip to start off at the Field Museum. We love your Channel. We can’t wait to see the next video.

  84. Angel Wilson says:

    Where are you?! 🙁

  85. Delivery McGee says:

    Haven't heard from you in awhile, Em. I know you have a day job, but … there's the makings of a conspiracy theory.

    Also I love you and your work (in the platonic "I'll buy you a beer" sense) but the AMNH is The Museum to me, no offense. But if I'm ever in Chicago, I'll visit your museum when I get tired of the u-boat down the street. Related, it'd be fun to hear you tell how they got the u-boat to its current home, though it's outside your usual zone of expertise.

  86. Firman Syafei says:

    wow this chaneel used to had moderate follower, only thousand i recalled. now close to 500 K. Great job guys !!!!

  87. Natacha Smith says:

    We miss you 💕💕💕 I hope you can keep educating us soon!

  88. Icehunter says:

    Oi! Are there any videos on the way ?

  89. Trinidad Cortez says:

    Is a sand dollar a Fossil.

  90. Eric Taylor says:

    One of the best "Deep time" descriptions I ever saw was as follows: Suppose you build a time machine that can move through time at 1 year per second. This is how long it would take to go back in time to witness historical events (assuming they took place when we think they did).
    1m 56s to see the first Wright Brother's flight
    4m 03s to see the start of the American Revolutionary War
    33m 39s to witness the birth of Jesus (go back 2019 years)
    2h 46m 40s to see the beginning of recorded history (10000 years ago)
    23 DAYS (pack lunch) to go back far enough to meet the first human
    a bit over 23 days to meet the first human (2 million years ago) From 2 3/4 of an hour to reach the beginning of recorded history, over 3 weeks to reach the beginning of human history!
    2 YEARS to see the K-T extinctions event (not recommended)
    7.3 years to see the first dinosaur
    16 years to see the Cambrian Explosion.
    110 years (bring a friend to have kids with) to see life form on Earth
    142 years to see the formation of Earth
    412 years to reach the Big Bang (not recommended)

  91. Kool Mali says:

    Maybe I am hearing this wrong, but how do flowering plants come after plant eating dinosaurs and such. Wouldn't flowering plants include grass , vines, and any tree that produces a fruit or seed have to be present for the animals to eat?

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