Ethics in Design and Graphics

July 25, 2019 posted by

welcome to the course on design and graphics today we are going to discuss on the issue of ethics how is ethics relevant while doing design and graphics the title of this module is ethics in design and graphics this module engages with what is ethics how is it relevant in the field of writing instances of ethical violation and measures to be ethical while you design and do graphics for the media whether it is print broadcast or the internet the areas covered in the module our introduction to ethics media ethics and ethics in graphics photomanipulation case studies of ethical violation and photojournalism new media and gender issues with regards to ethics in graphics and design a specific reference to ethics in graphics and design is given in all sections the last module of the course on design and graphics is about ethics in design and graphics this module deals engages with what is ethics how is it relevant in the field of design in graphics instances of ethical violation and measures to be ethical while using design and graphics the subject expert of this program is professor and beak on from aj km crc Jamia Millia Islamia New Delhi and I am Sakshi Monde wall media ethics in its simplest way attics can be described as a system of moral principles the decision-making and ways in which and the way one individual leads their life can be called as ethics the item ology of word ethics is from Greek word ethos or it goes one should not confuse ethics with laws laws are as opposite to ethics something forced by the government laws may fail in maintaining the conduct but ethics cannot media ethics belong in the broader category of applied ethics in the category of no ethics traditional media like print newspaper magazines tabloid broadcast media television radio online media web portals news websites film theater are supposed to follow the ethical standards the basic aim of media ethics is standing for universal respect for life and the rule of law and legality media ethics is a core foundation on any Kodama course on journalism to ensure that the journalists of tomorrow are ethical enough privacy news manipulation and conflict with law are few of the recurring themes with regards to media ethics sting operations investigative journalism are often between the boundaries of what is ethical and what not is being a fly-on-the-wall is the basic advice any journalism student is supposed to adhere to the question is will it be ethical always to be a fly on the wall when journalism is put into practice ethics in graphic content in this section let's discuss various cases of ethics and graphics and design the photographs by Steve McCurry have received a lot of flak for copying photo manipulation and unethical Photoshop shutter Jenna Gore a media critique has engaged with works by mercury he sees that the intention of finding differences with mercury is not aimed to defame him in any manner an attempt is done by an augur to collect certain information with regards to the works of mercury and his engagement with photography since mercury is considered as the epitome of photography in itself people take time to judge the intricacies of his photographs through this section let us discuss some of the famous images by mercury taken including that of India a close examination of his photographs is done in this section the arrival of Steve mercury to India has been off many time he has photographed varieties of incidents related with India the photographs of India have indeed given him Fame India is often regarded as his place of work or even as karma Bhoomi the photographer has often acknowledged his love for India through his photographs there are many iconic images of mercury clicked in India it is said that the last role of this Kodachrome was paint in India it is in India itself that has made him receive a lot of criticism with regards to his credentials his photographs are often like a movie taken my foreign director the gaze of the mercury photographs are stereotypical and exotic it satisfies the eyes of the Western audience they juco love the New York Times recently has criticized Mercury's latest photographs in India it was his recent collection called India they received a lot of criticism the images were taken between 1978 and 2014 the major flag that he received was that his photographs look performed an element of artificiality was reflecting in all his works these questions were asked the photographer during the book launch in Delhi to which he did not reply the ethical integrity of mercury has also been questioned many times but there are many people who support him as well the initial time that received criticism with regards to mercury was when an Italian photographer named Paolo Vigi Leone visited his photo exhibition in Italy the photographs were reported to be bodged print this photograph started many controversies later on this photograph was removed from the website of mercury himself the entire integrity of the image was questioned by the pataga refers the part of a signpost had been cloned onto a man's foot Steve Mercury's post-production processes itself was or came into question the addiction of colors uncovered much worse other photographs now revealed their own problems from excessive additions of vibrancy to erasure of figures and colors the picture given below has also received a lot of criticism this is the altered version of the image above credit Steve McCurry note here we can see a change in the elements and the right of the frame and artificial construction of a hand as well the idea of third world countries developed by mercury was stereotypical graphics and design is an integral element of any media Yahner whether it be print broadcast or new media photographs graphs charts illustrations cartoons are some of the popular forms of graphic and designing content being ethical to the graphical content primarily lies and being ethical to the original and true content it violated many aspects of photography in itself the photographs by make sure you recreate a myth of the third world likewise the pictures by him still give an impression of India as the land of snake charmers the colors are also artificially generated by him the below given photo is also removed by his team from his official website another major flak received by make sure he was that his photograph only covered the partial aspect of a story like how a tourist would take a photograph it only satisfied the Eurocentric viewers of his photographs the element of in authenticity was always questioned in his photographs a saleability of the developing world was done through his photographs the photographs of mercury were considered as tourist in nature a satisfaction of the West was done through his photographs there is always an end authenticity element present in his photographs his photographs are always considered as what is sold as alternative truth the present reality of India is often hidden in his photographs the same impression of the land of snake charmers and children and poverty is given by the author this does not imply that mercury is synonymous with in authentic works there are photographs like they do Cole who have found the inadequate feature of his works even a common person who has travelled little bit through India will understand the magic in his photographs that is the magic of post-production including heavy editing using software the research is lacking in his photograph when the location on the photographed is not properly researched merely traveling in program is done by this photographer according to Indian photographers the authenticity of such photographers needs to be questioned because make URI himself considered his photographs as historic artifact he should have shown the owners to reveal that his works have undergone bogus production works says they jus call the marketing team behind make URI is clever enough to increase the sale ability of his photographs and that is why takes interest in dealing with the pictures of the poor and the deprived there have been many instances in which mercury himself has blamed the dealings on his post-production team including a lab technician according to him most of these post-production changes were done without his knowledge even if it dismisses the responsibility of the images it is clear that the ethical issue loomed over his overly hyped images the usage of Photoshop being the primary one the aesthetics of a photograph by make URI is often attributed to the editing and not on the location or the photographed photo manipulation further examples in this section let's discuss further examples of photo manipulation from international level discussing on photo manipulation is also discussion on its technology a blessing or a curse a deliberate attempt in changing a photo rocks original content can be called as photo manipulation photo manipulation started with the arrival of photo editing software like Adobe Photoshop Adobe ohrid raw celebrities and women are often targeted in the Menace of photo manipulation the threat of photo manipulation has reached to a local level where people are more blenched for mistaking as child kidnappers it is also often used as a revenge strategy and photo manipulation has led to many suicides and mental ill-health recently photo manipulation is widely used in political scenarios there is a truth factor to any photograph a photograph can be clicked either to show its truth factor that is to show the original content and meaning or in a way hiding the truth factor for example protests photographs the truth factor of photographs are altered with the help of photo manipulation the case of Najma Heptulla a curious case of larva Heptulla the current governor of money see plaque for photo morphing of photograph offers she is the grand niece of Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad the first Education Minister of India Delhi High Court had sought a probe with regards to this photo morph and was widely discussed in the newspapers in 2005 a coffee-table book authored by Najma Heptulla on Maulana Abul Kalam Azad titled journey of a legend Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad 1888 to 1958 had the photograph of her sitting next to Azad Pharaohs bucked Hamid a petitioner approached the Delhi High Court claiming that the photograph is marked a CBI enquiry was initiated by the Delhi High Court with regards to this this was originally done when she was the head of Indian council for cultural relations ICC are the evidence given by dr. Murdoch Martha who as an AFS officer was taken into serious consideration by Justice shocked here the CBI probe found the presence of Heptulla in the entire process of making this photograph the political influence of the accused was an influence in the case and no F IR was lodged with regards to this a defense of the accused was done even by the CBI in some instances at the end of the inquiry CBI was not able to come up with any substantial evidence that the photograph is original or moved the original photograph of Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad clicked 1953 with Reza Shah Pahlavi the Shah of Iran was marked as allegedly demanded Najma Heptulla it was moored in a way that Heptulla was sitting next to Assad a caption of Abdullah sitting next with Maulana Azad after graduation was also given later probe revealed that the graduation of Heptulla had occurred in May 1958 whereas Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad passed away on 22nd February 1958 the book was banned on a later stage another version of the same book was released by replacing this photograph with a portrait photograph of Azad another major consequence of the photo manipulation and privacy infringement privacy is a right that is highly subjected to violation and the recent context with whistleblowers like Julian Assange and Edward Snowden revealing how one's privacy is violated rappers often do not respect the privacy of the photographed and they publish and take photographs without permission polarize the celebrity stops free trade science experiments taken without prior permission a classic example of privacy infringement done is by news and rage versus the Corsa case the issues pertaining to street photography and the infringement of privacy were done through the case the photograph of Erno News and wage who is a Hasidic Jew was clicked by photographer Philippe Larsen decor SIA New York City's Times Square the photographed sued the photographer for violating his privacy while clicking and not taking his permission before photography the reinforcing of stereotypes is another serious issue caused by photo manipulation it can be defined as portraying a thing or a person in mundane and oversimplified way designing and graphics are often used for enhancing the stereotypes for example the pair's advertisement used in designs and graphics that had racial elements in the 90s in this image it can be seen that the african-american boy is turning to a white American boy after using pears soap on the body this photograph of Kim jong-il posing along with the North Korean soldiers went viral a myths of the rumors that he's dead the media apart from North Korea claimed that this is photoshopped but in order to prove that it is wrong edited images of the North Korean president leading an active life was published across mediums this image of then American President Barack Obama standing next to Louisiana Beach was published in The Economist it was to examine the aftermath of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico where is the original image had something else to say in the original image of our standing next to two other people but these two were removed from the photograph the in charge of the Economist my green admitted to the cropping and removal of the other two people a weird justification of focus to be given to the president was made by the in charge and she supported the photograph and the manipulation done this image was taken in 2008 in Iran the official news website of Iran ona's Iranian Revolutionary Guard released this photograph as the version of the missile testing done many news outlets publish this including the American news agencies but the reality of this image is something else among the four missiles only three were successful in its mission the failed missile was taken out by Photoshop while sending for publication this is a war photograph clicked by Adnan Hajj in Beirut Lebanon on August 2006 the photographer was a freelance photographer with the Reuters an artificial creation of the smoke on the blackening of the same were done by the photographer in this photograph a cloning of the smoke was also done an exaggeration of the damage done by the Israel forces was done by the photographer the photographer or the non Haj was removed and his photographs were withdrawn by the Reuters Oh Jay Simpson is a famous basketball player United States of America he was arrested and charged with the murder of his ex-wife Nicole Brown Simpson and her friend Ron Goldman and in famous mugshot of him was published as cover picture in The Times magazine this 1994 photograph was darkened and made extra black a racial element was given in this photograph by darkening the same it was done by Matt Morin a photo Illustrator associated with The Times Magazine an apology from the part of Times magazine was done and was stated that there was no racial implication the photo manipulation done with the help of software after photo manipulation let's discuss some issues pertaining to copyright issues while dealing with graphic contents the primary issue of ethic starts from copyright issue which is a form of intellectual property copyright is also a legal right that grants exclusive right to the hues and distribution of property for example a photograph music book etc and the rights are limited for a time period the reproduction of the copyrighted content in any manner is a punishable offence and is often shared among multiple authors how is copyright relevant to graphic content publishing of a photograph chart or map in a print broadcast or online media without proper permission and acknowledgement of the source can end up in serious copyright violation if a newspaper or a television channel is using images or video content from news agency's proper acknowledgement of the source must be ensured there are many instances on copyright violation with regards to graphic content is reported from all over the globe even sharing a copyrighted image on social media can be liable for copyright violation and the author has the right to sue you Rodgers vs. cools The Associated Press vs. Ferry Carey versus Prince modern dog design vs. Target Corporation are some of the famous cases for where the graphical content copy rights were violated the Rogers versus Coons case can be considered as a primary example of copyright issues and graphics and design Rogers is a professional photographer who created a photograph named puppies puppies were famously reproduced as a notecard Koons is an artist and sculpture at times he used famous images from mass culture and reproduces it as sculptures and photographs the three-dimensional sculpture of puppies gained popularity and Rogers sued him for copyright infringement the US Court ruled the judgment in favor of Rogers and considered kuhn had done copyright violation at the same time kuhn made it in the code that this photograph is an inspiration and parody from Rogers the Olympic Lobos are trademarked and any unauthorized uses by people who are not the official users are considered as copyright infringement during the time of Olympics many cases pop up with regards to copyright violation the graphic design of the five rings is often copied in items from Goody's soft toys to t-shirts use the designs of the mascots are copied and it can lead you into serious copyright infringement cases not every company or product can get the inspiration for designs from the Olympic logo these issues lead to serious questions on visual plagerism plagerism is the act of stealing and snoozing of another person's idea without proper referencing and citation the presentation of an existing idea is new and original also falls into the category of plagiarism plagiarism is a serious offense and cannot be distinguished as only as a mere copying of borrowing of somebody's work the section of plagerism dealing exclusively about visuals is called visual the thin line between plagerism and in spirit is quite small visual plagerism is a complex issue it is often difficult to find this thin line between inspiration and plagerism and at times it could be highly subjective a proper guideline regarding visual plagerism must be given to students when they start studying about visuals itself some of the high profile cases and visual plagerism includes that of Joanne Williams and his company logo garden and modern dogs fight against his knee even the 2020 Olympics logo has received flack on visual plagerism the first logo design by the kn0 Sarna was questioned for plagerism see the similarities later on this new logo was unveiled this logo is designed by a South ocurro this logo plagerism remains as one of the severe criticism received while in the area of visual plagerism it picks a new media this section engages with the issue of ethics with regards to new media similar to the traditional media are the issues with regards to online journalism new media websites applications etc are privacy accuracy credibility of facts regulation commercial pressures and newsgathering methods there are chances for news that are not credible and accurate to spread fast than in traditional media it is through the graphic designs that such news is spread especially through mediums like whatsapp Facebook and Twitter a simple click is enough to spread and make a content viral the recent example of news content that became viral during the nipa hub iris outbreak in Kerala can be a classic example of ethics in graphic design manipulated images of bad sitting inside banana leaves eating fruits were spread all over the internet this led to a massive killing of bats in the local localities and can lead to severe ecological issues till late it is yet to confirm where the bats are the original host of the virus are not fake letters by the Health Department with graphically created seals and letter heads were also made into circulation a panic stricken condition was created by these graphic contents in a situation of emergency raising concerns regarding ethics altered images of bats infesting staples like plantain coconut trees widely spread in Kerala and social media like whatsapp and Facebook legal actions against them were taken by the Kerala Police there is a strong relationship between ethics gender and issues pertaining to children the issue gender is of serious concern when dealing with ethics and graphics and design women are often considered at easy targets by the media the objectification of women is done by media through various unethical ways of using graphics and design even an advertisement such Mal practices are done to maintain the cell ability of a product children are also easy targets and ethical standards must be maintained while making content contents with violence and abuse must be censored from kids even cartoons that are exclusive for children are having offensive contents proper guidelines and measures must be ensured to keep the ethical standards of contents made for children the image of this tree stands synonymous to the infamous Bethune rape case according to Indian law it is punishable offence to reveal the details of the rape victims but many media outlets showed the photographs of the rape victim this was a clear violation of media laws and ethics conclusion like in any field ethics is an important thing to be considered while dealing with designs and graphics as graphics and designs can have an immediate impact on the audience's and text being ethical while dealing with them is highly sought in this chapter we discussed about issues pertaining to photo manipulation leading to severe privacy violation and stereotypical representations we also discussed some curious cases from around the world leading to debates pertaining to this that is all that we had for you in this episode till the next time it's a goodbye


2 Replies to “Ethics in Design and Graphics”

  1. Najeem N says:

    Mam.ese hindi medium m bhi dale.

  2. all mixer says:

    Dear mam please isye Hindi language me bhi upload kro

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