Why Elizabeth Warren’s DNA test totally backfired | With Chris Cillizza

July 30, 2019 posted by


– What am I going as for Halloween? A nerd! Don’t ask surprised. Pocahontas, if you’ve paid
even a little attention to the political world lately, you know that’s President Donald Trump’s preferred nickname for Elizabeth Warren, the democratic senator from Massachusetts. It’s an admittedly crude reference to her claim that she is
of Native American descent and Trump’s somewhat fact-free response that Warren claimed her
status as a minority to get ahead in the world of academia. So why does any of this matter you ask. Well, because Warren is running. Mmm, should I say, considering running for president in 2020 against, you guessed it, Donald John Trump. Which brings us to what
Warren did recently, out of the blue, she released
a five plus minute video in which she travels back to her hometown, that’s Norman Oklahoma, to extensively trace her family tree. The video is slickly produced
and has all the hallmarks of a video someone running for president, or considering running for president. (bell dings)
Would make. There’s the folksy conversation with Warren’s extended family about their hearth’s gravel roots. The shots of Warren doing
normal people stuff, you know, like walking
and pointing at things and repeated mentions
of how Warren’s mother always told her family that she was of Native American heritage. And then comes the big reveal. Warren, on the phone with
renowned Stanford geneticist, Carlos Bustamante, he’s
an advisor to 23andMe, we’ve all heard of that,
asked whether Trump is right, or her mother is right
and if she does in fact have Native American ancestry. Bustamante responds that. – The facts suggest that you absoulutely have a Native American
ancestor in your pedigree. – Which, if you ask me is
not exactly definitive. Think of it this way, if I go
to the doctor for a physical and at the end, when I
ask them if I’m healthy, he says, quote, the facts suggest that you absolutely are healthy, I’m feeling good, but I’m
not feeling great, right? I’d rather have heard, you
are absolutely healthy! You are going to live until
you are 120 years old. The word, suggest, from
Bustamante throws a decent slice of doubt into the proceedings. The conclusion from Warren’s DNA test. A test Trump himself has
routinely called on her to take doesn’t help her case
all that much either. She is, according to the best estimate somewhere between 1/64 an
1/1,024 Native American. 1/1,024! That’s 0.0097%, which is not a lot. Now sidebar on the timing of all of this. Warren’s people say the
results were released soon after she got them, which, fine. But of course, DNA
tests measure one thing, and we know ethnic identity is complex. That’s something that
the Secretary of State for the Cherokee Nation brought up in his response to the
whole thing, saying quote, “Using a DNA test to lay
claim to any connection “to the Cherokee Nation
or any tribal nation, even vaguely, is inappropriate and wrong.” That’s Chuck Hoskin Jr., he added, “Senator Warren is
undermining tribal interests “with her continued claims
of tribal heritage.” Ugh. All of which leaves me
wondering why did Warren do this DNA thing at all? Yes, of course, I get
what she was trying to do. She knew that Trump’s Pocahontas attack was doing her some damage
among skiddish democrats who don’t wanna nominate someone in 2020 who has a gaping weakness that Trump, the biggest bully on the block, would and could exploit. Warren wanted to show that she couldn’t and wouldn’t be swift-boated. What do I mean by that term? Democrats are still bitter
about the 2004 campaign in which a number of men who had served with Massachusetts Senator, John Kerry, on swift-boats in Vietnam claimed that he had badly exaggerated
his acts of bravery during the war. Kerry was caught flat-footed by an attack on what most people believe
was his greatest strength, his military service in Vietnam
and really never recovered, losing to George W. Bush. So Warren wanted to tell
democrats that she was ready for Trump’s attacks and had
the facts 100% on her side. That he would come at her,
but she would punch back hard and effectively. She wanted to reassure them
that there was no danger that in nominating her, they
could be risking their chances of beating Trump, their last chance at beating Trump in 2020. Sidebar, democrats are also still haunted by Hilary Clinton’s loss to Trump in 2016. A defeat they lay, at least in part, at the feet of the fact
that she simply had too much baggage from
past political fights that he could and did exploit effectively. All the while amazingly
side-stepping the baggage he had of his own. The problem here is that
Warren’s video and DNA test didn’t tie things up in a
nice bow for her or democrats. Even the most favorable reading of what Warren’s DNA test showed is that there’s a high probability that she has a tiny bit of
Native American blood in her. Now, that fact doesn’t change this fact. That when the story first
broke, way back in 2012, Warren initially said she had no idea that she was not only listed, but touted as a minority
by Harvard Law School. She then had to acknowledge
that she had listed her minority status on some federal forms. Another sidebar, Harvard and
the University of Pennsylvania continue to say that her ancestry was not a factor in her hiring. Now the DNA test doesn’t offer any sort of conclusive, beyond a
shadow of a doubt, evidence of Warren’s Native American heritage, and therefore it remains
today what it’s been for the past six years. It’s an effective attack line
for her political opponents, democrats and republicans. Enter Trump. He tweeted, quote,
“Pocahontas, the bad version, “sometimes referred to as Elizabeth Warren “is getting slammed. “She took a bogus DNA test and it showed “that she may be 1/1,024, “far less than the average American. “Now Cherokee Nation denies her. “DNA test is useless. “Even they don’t want her. “Phony!” Then he tweeted again. “Elizabeth Warren is being
hammered, even by the left. “Her false claim of Indian heritage is only selling to very
low IQ individuals.” This is of course what Trump does. He boasts, he brags, he bullies. But Warren’s DNA test reveal was aimed at taking potent arrow out
of Donald Trump’s quiver. Instead, she gave him
lots more ammunition. And that is ThePo!nt. We do this every week, twice. Check back every Tuesday and Thursday for brand new episodes. (jazz music)

100 Comments

100 Replies to “Why Elizabeth Warren’s DNA test totally backfired | With Chris Cillizza”

  1. CNN says:

    Hi Chris here — My view is that Warren did herself more harm than good with this DNA reveal. Tell me why I'm wrong.

  2. Ex0dus111 says:

    You're wrong. According to the test she has a great-great-great-great grandparent that was 100% native American. That proves her mother story right.
    Trump promised to donate a million dollars to charity, he did not, because of course he didn't, he rarely if ever tells the truth.

  3. Nitro Express says:

    OK! Pocahontas and Spartacus. show be a show worth missing.

  4. Chrissy C says:

    This is why CNN has no credibility. Going after someone who has actually stood up to the corporate America that runs you.

  5. Donald Gorth says:

    Pocahantis Warren could have crazy eyes Cortez as running mate……PERFECT

  6. Bernard Brother says:

    Trump was wrong… Again.

  7. James Royal says:

    Am I dreaming or did CNN seem fair and unbiased for one of a few times. Can you continue this trend, well I’m not getting my hopes up.

  8. James Royal says:

    I will be honest I voted for Trump but I don’t defend the way he says things. Every time he says something in a cocky, bravado way I know he will trigger many liberals out there. Sometimes I laugh it off other times I cringe like did he have to go there because it just creates a hornets nest.

  9. Korona says:

    Maybe if the Democrats had something to offer beyond wooly 3rd way gibberish they wouldn't have to get so caught up on personality.

  10. Davonte McPherson says:

    FAKE-o-Hontas!

  11. Xavi Santeiro says:

    Trump is a bully for calling out a woman on her lies. Lies she’s used for political gain and it’s factually evident that she lied. But yes trump is the bully smh

  12. Mr. America says:

    Warren lied and said she was a Native American to Harvard, Harvard said she was the first women of color at Harvard Law

  13. Derek Dere says:

    You democrats are so unintelligent it's hilarious

  14. bpattillo707 says:

    Wow I'm shocked. Good for you CNN for something that makes sense

  15. Sezrekahn Eldar says:

    Recently, she had a beer on a livestream just proving she is a common peasant just like the rest of us. As a person who has about 1/64 Native American DNA, I'm glad to finally have a politician I can relate to.

  16. Sezrekahn Eldar says:

    Remember when Zack Morris did this on Saved by the Bell?
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GaS2ULUZWvg
    Elizabeth Warren is trash.

  17. justgivemethetruth says:

    Elizabeth Warren is about 1000x times more native American than Donald Trump is human being. Trump has more skunk DNA than human genes.

  18. Bobby Juju says:

    Anything misleading Elizabeth Warren has done is minuscule in comparison to the deceitful actions of Donald Trump, and the Right and skeptical Democrats know that. I don't think anyone could honestly tell me that Trump has even an ioda of respect for Native Americans, and it's doubtful that any of his actions have alleviated their suffering in any way; it wouldn't be beyond Warren however to work with them and respect their grievances, despite her goofy claim.

  19. HOstiLe TEntacLE MoNster says:

    < and you idiots tried to cover for her at first.

  20. Hephen Stawking says:

    “The facts suggest that X is absolutely the case” is about as strong a scientific statement you could make. Credentials: I am a scientist who works with DNA.

  21. Wes House says:

    Wow, fake news with something good, finally

  22. Original One says:

    Why people want take a GENEALOGY Test ?

    Why Native American DNA Test Backfire

    2018 Oxford Dictionary Third definition (3a)
    Nigger:
    Was used by European Emigrants from Europe, in Colonial Times in reference to American Indians
    https://pin.it/2thguqpo2i5i7c

    Most Accurate DESCRIPTION of America by John Ogilby and Verrazzano

    Explorers that told the TRUTH 1671
    https://www.google.com/search?q=1671+john+ogilby+america&tbm=isch&ved=2ahUKEwiI1q-Bj9DfAhUHFFMKHZaBD_cQ2-cCegQIABAC&oq=1671+john+ogilby+america&gs_l=mobile-gws-wiz-img.3..0i8i30l2j33i299.14640.16563..17092…0.0..0.171.1105.0j8……0….1.v0bWaI0uPtw&ei=PTctXMjDNYeozAKWg764Dw&client=ms-android-att-us&prmd=msivn&biw=360&bih=518

  23. Sonny Moon says:

    How did CNN let this pass?

  24. Fact Check says:

    I am more Native American than Elezebath Warren.

  25. Amanda Laschola says:

    Oh you mean it backfired because she's not an Indian? 😂😂😂 I really hope she runs for president so we'll all have something to laugh our asses off about!😂

  26. ppm120667 says:

    The Dems have no clothes left. They have lost immigrants like me. They preach unity and diversity and discriminate against Asian Americans . Hypocrites

  27. Bryce Thibodeaux says:

    Elizebeth warren has proven she is out of her mind releasing this information….

  28. Ella Sterling says:

    I’m 2% Jewish and 98% English and French. I guess I need to start telling everyone I’m Jewish now. I’m a minority now! 😂😂😂🤦🏼‍♀️

  29. Bitshitter says:

    I am from South Carolina, and while I have my own reasons for most likely NOT voting for Mrs. Warren for US President, I am totally confused as to why this whole thing is considered such a big deal. I cannot find anything anywhere that shows Warren has ever indicated that she is member of any Native American tribe. Representatives of these tribes have called her out, claiming she has "hurt" them and damaged them, and should apologize profusely for it all. And she has apologized, and apologized over and over and over. But I cannot find anything that she should apologize for, and no representative of those tribes have ever stated what she should apologize for.

    Secondly, all I have seen is Warren has claimed some degree of Native American heritage. She has not claimed to be Native American, only white. The DNA test results do not rule out that she has Native American DNA in her lineage, and in fact is said to be "strong" evidence that she does. So again, all the DNA results do, is prove her claim. So what is the big deal here?

    And even if Warren was so totally wrong in her claims, it has been proven without fail, that her claims were the result of what information Warren was raised up on her whole life, and has been proven to be the case by many of her family members. So even if she was totally wrong in her claims, no one can claim that she was knowingly lying about her heritage – only that she herself was lied to, or was misled at the most. So is that such a huge crime? And anyways, the DNA results more supports her than disputes her position.

    So what is the whole big deal about any of this??? I just am so confused as to why it's anything at all….

  30. stephanie junebug says:

    So who dictates who to how much you have to have to be what ?

  31. Anonymous User says:

    Everyone in this video is orange

  32. SergeSmArt says:

    as a foreigner, I never been able to understand – WHY do so many Americans support Billary Clinton or Elizabeth Vorrin?
    They seems as losers even before the beginning

  33. Polska Gora says:

    Even before watching i already know its FAKE NEWS because of CNN…

  34. Chewbacka Grizelda says:

    This is some of the most ignorant, uneducated, unresearched non-journalism I've ever seen put out by a white man who has no concept at all of what he's talking about. But how could he know? He's not even part Native American himself. If he were, he would have realized that everything he just said up there is HORSE SHIT. It takes being someone who descended from the Native American women and children who suffered displacement because of their being Native Americans, rather than being hung, beheaded, and more, many of whom were RAPED by white men and gave birth as a result, or being someone who descended from Native American babies left on doorsteps to be raised by white families (and married off to white people as adults), to be able to understand this issue at all. Chris Cillizza obviously does not have any such story to tell – at least that he knows of. I challenge him to take a DNA test as well as to separately learn about his own family history, including all the negatives, and I'm betting there are a LOT of negatives in his ancestry!, and to post it right here to CNN. Time for another privileged white man to find out who he owes apologies to!!! Ha!

  35. Palo Grande says:

    I don't think Trump is a bully. I think Republicans are pussies and the evil democrats have been taking advantage of them for too long and would silence any opposition by using mean words. They're useless and only use epithets, lies, and fiction. Trump fights back and they don't know how to respond, so he's a "bully". As we see now, Democrats are throwing fits because we have a leader who is like a parent to a bunch of spoiled children; tantrums are the result.

  36. RationalLllama says:

    Only decent journalist at CNN.

  37. Timothy Flanagan says:

    I think her paw paw should be her running mate

  38. Mr Pool Player says:

    This is all very solvable. What does Pocohontas' Warren's parent's birth certificates say about their ethnicity…?

  39. Robie Billy says:

    Because shes a lying sack of shyt

  40. Eric Savoie says:

    I love how every comment on this whole page is about how everyone hates cnn

  41. Nort McGort says:

    Trump "Guess I have to stop calling her Pocohontus after her DNA test shows she's not a native American".

  42. Joe Flaherty says:

    Chris…answer me this….why is it "bragging" and "bullying" as you say of Trump to call Warren out on her utter lie of indian Heritage? I notice your report carefully concealed the fact that Warren has far less Indian blood then the average America does. This is another example of left wing activism, it is NOT journalism and still another example of FAKE NEWS. You should be ashamed of yourself.

  43. k8192 says:

    You deserve 1 star out of 5 for your journalism … You deserve 0.5 start out of 5 for your delivery.

  44. k8192 says:

    As you are an advocate for the far-left, I call on you to formally commit to retire from ALL media if Trump wins the 2020 presidential election. You mouth off against Trump so how about you make a stand. Or are you too much of a soft-cock to do it.

  45. Amigo Kandu says:

    Authentic Native American cultures on my YouTube. Not a Trace of Warren LOL
    3,000 videos to watch.

  46. polite critique says:

    Warren proved she has native American DNA. So its trump who was the lying fool. How'd she fail when she was proven correct

  47. zerogeass21 says:

    Video too long

  48. America Awesome says:

    What ! CNN doing journalism ! America does not trust your organization . She lied dude to get ahead and special treatment .

  49. Shade Bleu says:

    They hash tagged #Pocahonatas Hahahaha

  50. BSman617 says:

    Ugggh CNN?

  51. Getapetahome says:

    CHRIS CIILLIZZA is a SUCK-up on his knees for wall street!!!

    ELIZABETH WARREN IS A THREAT TO WALL STREET, our pharmaceutical and healthcare of death industry.

    Many people DO HAVE SOME Less than visible, but still present characteristics. My white blonde haired blue eyed daughter and I mean her hair is white as a wall almost, is curing the recessive gene for these traits from me and I am Arabic descent. Just because she has a light light blonde hair and beautiful blue eyes, does not mean that my heritage in her blood does not count.

  52. OmegaPyron says:

    So at most 1/64th (2^6) she'd be 6.25%, which is less than the standard 8%, and 1/1024th (2^10) is 0.097%…so that's not even a tenth of a single percent. lol

  53. Byron Anderson says:

    I always laugh when Europeans tell me they have native American blood. It's like having Jeffery Dahmer telling me he has African American blood in him, which is true but I'm sure the way he obtained his DNA is immoral

  54. Andy Immelwade says:

    So finally CNN admits Hillary was a terrible candidate with immense baggage despite pushing their Russian collusion narrative for 2 years solid. Terrible organisation. Props for some actual journalism here though.

  55. Search History says:

    CNN betrayed the silly fraud. Now when is she going to repay all the money and benefits she received through fraud?

  56. richard wilmot Ph.D says:

    Suze Orman is a ph'king whore. HER PIMP IS Elizabeth Warren!
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZJh25-sO98

  57. Bobby Lee says:

    for you eliabeth warren https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jA8C7PplP4w

  58. Tom USA says:

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XARMbTEGVDk
    Claiming Indian heritage was very popular with feminist in the 80's and 90's to add victims privilege points, Cherokee was the most popular because of the song Cherokee People. There was no way to check if these claims were true, it was before DNA test existed. DNA ancestry tests are statistical. Warren has DNA fragments from South American Indians, it’s so small it’s in the margin of error, possibly viral contamination.

  59. Ian McIntosh says:

    This is the funniest Liz Warren Parody EVER!!! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8mu-e6O3oU

  60. Amigo Kandu says:

    March 19, 2019 Warren gave an emotional speech about growing up POOR, her older brothers joining the U.S. military "only as an escape from poverty" ( not exactly Grapes Of Wrath ). Then Warren's father suffers heart attack forcing Mother to go work at Sears. This is where Warren is conditioned by fear of Home Foreclosure.

    Sounds like Hillary's anger over her own mother's poverty, a driving force for her quest for her own Power.

    So, I could see Warren desperately using the "Native American" shtick to become "first woman of color" in that Harvard Dept, a $360,000 annual salary.
    Meanwhile, actual Indians, descendants of survivors of genocide, and forced attendance in crappy Indian Boarding Schools, have largely been off the radar for major law schools. Takeovers of federal buildings in D.C. and of Alcatraz Island were results of Destitution of Reservation Life, these events putting them on radar of COINTELPRO, instead of college recruiters.
    Imagine a caucus of fullblooded American Indians in U.S. Senate working on the 100 UNratified Treaties discovered Hidden in U.S. Senate in 1905? Just honoring those treaties in 1905 would have done much for the dwindling populations then. Instead, enlistment in WW1 was a boost ( unlike Warren's claim about her 3 brothers' desperation ) and again in WW2, Korea, and VietNam.
    AIM American Indian Movement was actually started to get Federal Govt to Honor provisions of those Treaties…. but so many of the AIM members themselves were flawwed by their impoverished lives. Maybe Warren is onto something?…. many of the Indian Wannabe's co-opt into the Tragedy of The American Indian with a fervor, like the massive protest camp against the Dakota Access Pipeline that Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez spent weeks at herself….?

  61. Randy Boisa says:

    I own a jeep Cherokee, does that make me a native American?

  62. Elle W says:

    The freckle on her big toe is Native American!

  63. Paladine says:

    puta haunches warren speaks with fork tongue

  64. Charles Warren says:

    She's a dumbass, a creepy liberal scumbag.

    "I"m gonna get me a beer."

  65. method says:

    You guys are retarded. I feel like I got dumber watching this iddiot talk

  66. method says:

    👌👌😂🤣😂🤣😂🤣😂👌👌🖕🏿

  67. Andrés Bernys says:

    CNN doing some factual news? wwooooow

  68. Lobotomous Monk says:

    Pedantic reasoning over the word "suggest" – the geneticist may have been leaving himself an out if what he was told or provided by Warren was false

  69. linandy1 says:

    Warren has proven she is kind of an idiot more than once.

  70. QE oo says:

    Warren is not a poc. She is a liar & tried to be a minority. What a bigot. Kamala is wayyyy better

  71. yourFavSugarDedey says:

    CNN take turn so quickly that day

  72. aaron lizotte says:

    just not sure what baggage trump has that people are talking about other than the grab her by the p** crap.

  73. Scott Singley says:

    That's like saying Crazy Horse is 1 BILLIONTH *WHITE* and that makes him of European ancestry. People really aren't this DUMB are they?

  74. Shaun Mantell says:

    But More Importantly She Is A Crap Politician,She's Also Got That Trump Derangement Syndrome……John Kerry Walked Into A Bar And The Bartender Asks Him "Why The Long Face"…..The Democrats Can Sure Pick 'em!!

  75. Michael Anderson says:

    I heard that all the dna tests are only 50% correct I will wait till the % get's much higher

  76. micheal mccarthy says:

    Easy pickins.

  77. micheal mccarthy says:

    Low HANGING FRUIT.

  78. dfirthc says:

    There IS conclusive evidence that Warren unambiguously has some Native American ancestry. Get someone who understands genetics to explain it to you.

  79. Rudy Straight says:

    Bruh… this reminds me a bodybuilder like ct fletcher that went to a doctor and sat down and told him his blood test consider him natural..

  80. Rudy Straight says:

    I have 1 % Asian heritage like she is 1% Indian..

  81. MLLG49 says:

    WARREN HAS ALWAYS BEEN A TOTAL FRAUD!!!!

  82. Sharon Creamer says:

    Where is it in writing? Why has she not shown a copy of the actual test? I have researched DNA ancestry tests, here on YouTube, and if one has Native American ancestry, it is in writing. That is where I take issue with Chuck Hoskin in that if a DNA ancestry tests states that there is Native American ancestry, and, the percent of whatever Nationality they are, why is that not fact? After researching, I decided to do my own test in which I am currently awaiting my results which I should receive in about 2 weeks (honest). I will let you know the results, I promise. I am waiting on eggshells, too! Bringing up Elizabeth Warren as a minority. Was that her predominant Nationality? I have minority ancestry, Portuguese, which is Spanish, but, I don't use that to state that I am a minority. As a born and bred American Citizen, I never consider myself to be a minority. Did she use that? Could she?

  83. Dawn Sousa says:

    She's nothing more than a liar and full of sh&% bit#@!

  84. Pommie bears says:

    Wow…an anomaly at CNN. A person I agree with. How refreshing.

  85. SmOkInJo FYF says:

    How the fuck is Trump racist? Actions speaks louder than words. I admit Trump says some stupid shit but she pretending to be native American to get into a fancy ass college when I'm legit half Cherokee and I had to work my ass off to get into college of Charleston. Fuck her and her posing ass.

  86. Crazy Canuck says:

    Does the DNA test say anything about having high cheekbones and being a complete 100% fraud of being an Indian???

  87. Bran Evans says:

    She must pay back every cent of Indian casino money she scammed if she has !!!!! Every cent !!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  88. Juanita Flores says:

    She is just a lier. Who the hell is going to vote for her?

  89. Suzy Foreman says:

    Anyone who votes for this liar is a liar themselves or just plain Stupid!

  90. John Forbes says:

    HOW CAN ANYONE EVEN IMAGINE VOTING FOR THIS KOOK!   SHE HAS BEEN LYING ON HER FORMS & CLAIMING BOGUS INDIGENOUS DNA FOR OVER 2 DECADES! THE :POKOHONTAS " BADGE IS RIGHT!

  91. Brittany Foster says:

    She can't stand up to trump he have her crying everyday and we be laughing sorry but we will

  92. DJ STEPHEN V says:

    My fellow Americans I have to ask this? WHO GIVES A FLYING RATS A$$ WHETHER ELIZABETH WARREN's DNA HAS NATIVE AMERICAN HERITAGE OR HERITAGE FROM A FLYING SHARK? IT DOES NOT MATTER…geez

  93. Charles Warren says:

    Well, she's a flaky liar. She makes shit up as she goes along, like most liberals from New England do, and she wants to set a presence for us all to be sucked into, in the form of flaky, lying nonsense.

  94. sak lee says:

    and i thought i had a tiny amount of indian… 1/16

  95. mike watson says:

    1/1024 is a lot higher than a random result. Much higher than the margin of doubt in the Clinton/Monica test by far. 1/1024 is definitely "some', like in "some ancestry". You don't get to choose your DNA, and you are allowed to disclose it or not at your discretion. This is faaaar above Trump's multiple barefaced lies. Result: Choose Warren over Trump any time.

  96. LuminanceSnow says:

    Omg 😅

  97. Deibama nonliberal says:

    Warren appears to be a moron.

  98. Far-Right Capitalism says:

    CNN is only fighting Elizabeth Warren because she does not support Israel, American media, politicians, and leadership always loyal to Israel before America

  99. kathleen smith says:

    I love how these guys think they can fool people —- A liar is a liar is a liar.

  100. Grandus11 says:

    Warren is no more native american than I am she is and idiot

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *